Transportation Emissions Prediction scheme (TEPs).
Reference article abstract: On‐road emission inventories in urban areas have typically been developed using traffic data derived from travel demand models. These approaches tend to underestimate emissions because they often only incorporate data on household travel, not including commercial vehicle movements, taxis, ride hailing services, and other trips typically underreported within travel surveys. In contrast, traffic counts embed all types of on‐road vehicles; however, they are only conducted at selected locations in an urban area. Traffic counts are typically spatially correlated, which enables the development of methods that can interpolate traffic data at selected monitoring stations across an urban road network and in turn develop emission estimates. This paper presents a new and universal methodology designed to use traffic count data for the prediction of periodic and annual volumes as well as greenhouse gas emissions at the level of each individual roadway and for multiple years across a large road network. The methodology relies on the data collected and the spatio‐temporal relationships between traffic counts at various stations; it recognizes patterns in the data and identifies locations with similar trends. Traffic volumes and emissions prediction can be made even on roads where no count data exist. Data from the City of Toronto traffic count program were used to validate the output of various algorithms, indicating robust model performance, even in areas with limited data.